"Uncle Sam Diamond" in the United States, the largest diamond ever found, weighing 40.23 carats, was discovered in 1924, Prairie Pipe Creek I, who was later known as the diamond hole in the garden Wesley Object Linking and pretending to Grandma Mbeding, located in the state of Arkansas. diamond known as the founder of university education and nick named Bachelor of demonstrations, which have been sent with love, as Uncle Sam.
Uncle Sam Diamond nature
Diamond is a 12.42 carat emerald cut stone with an unknown color and clarity grades. State Park in the hole pink diamond with artists and weighed 40.23 carats of diamonds and white diamonds and describes. The clarity of the image of diamonds and diamond appears to be unusual.
Earth tones such as pink diamonds in the mantle, or after the birth of the earth's surface during the creation of the crystalline structure due to a distortion of the plastic can cause. The order of the plastic pink stone ally distorted crystal regions changed absorption spectrum. Thus, "Uncle Sam Diamond" is probably the type Ila diamond, and nitrogen, and the other is free from responsibilities, but the color of the crystal caused by plastic deformation.
Rough diamond weighing 40.23 carats in 1924 in Arkansas tubes located in the Prairie Creek mine, Arkansas diamond workers conducted by the company, Wesley and imaginary grandmother Ola, who called Nick was the name of Uncle Sam. White rough diamonds in the United States was the largest discovery of diamonds, and still holds the record.
Rough diamonds, and said the cut twice, and another full page - turned into a 12.42-carat cut diamond weighing occasion. In 1971, Uncle Sam diamond for $ 150,000 had been sold to an anonymous buyer informed.
Crater of diamonds state park, located on Highway 301, Pike of the country, near the southwestern state of Arkansas, Murfreesboro, and the public, where visitors are able to search for diamonds, and open diamond mine in the world, and take what they find. In other words, a Park Finders Keepers policy is working, "a policy unique never before been moved to any part of the world, a unique approach has proven a huge success, the park 60,000 visitors a year, on average, of which the a lucky draw to research each year, about 600 diamonds, diamonds for two hours a day on average projects.
Crater of diamonds state park
In search of diamonds state park crater area of 36 acres and a half, and the water they consume precious stones - a volcano known as the Kemper Meadow Creek light pipes effects considered. This diamond or perhaps millions of years ago deep in the earth billions of Earth's crust some 200-300 kilometers below the surface were formed. Later, an explosion of violent explosions of diamonds from the earth were brought to the surface, and is estimated to have occurred about 100 million years ago. Experience has shown that diamond hole in a pipe or a glass of wine and the magnitude of the effects Reserved.
A type of volcanic rock Kember anthropogenic pressure pipes have been found Periodontists. Even paralysis (rare events) in the regions of the earth's crust. South Africa, Siberia and the wider dissemination of internal events in stable, but even these pipes North America, Australia, Brazil, India, if any. Not all diamonds man Kember. When found the diamond at least one hundred percent of the rock was formed.
Overall, less than the size of the diamonds one carat diamond found near the hole. Usually the size of the head or below the rim game. Diamonds come in several different colors, but found the three most common colors of brown and white and yellow, in this system. The 2-40 carats of diamonds from the relatively large size, are detected, but this is rare occurrence. And are usually hollow diamond easily a well-rounded. They glow of metal and generally, I E. Light goes transparent, but you can not see the other side.
There are a number of other metals of the diamond as quartz, Amethyst, Garnet, peridot, agate, Jasper, calcite, Bartie is found in this area. All of the approximately 40 different rocks and minerals found in the crater is the site.
The discovery of diamonds in the park
Diamond was first discovered in 1906 in the region, and John bought a farm in the area of Wesley Huddle a ton. But before that two of the 1906 geologists locate potential diamond sites have been studied in terms of information, but could not find any diamonds. On August 8, 1906, while rock salt spread Huddle fever tonnes were in the area, and looked around in the mud for a few bright spots. Curiosity was created, the sector decided to overcrowding tonnes research drew attention, and two of dirt and gravel bright. Stones from the local banks ECJ rejected the bid 50 cents, Huddle tons of New York, which confirmed that two of diamonds and precious stones really an expert sent two of the stones. There are 3.0 carat diamond white stone, while the 15-carat yellow diamond.
The discovery of diamonds from t Huddle Pike Safety has created a diamond rush. Tons squatting next to a farm owned by Maureen M. Millard also had a gem located hole. The area of the diamond prospectors and fortune hunters, and a small town in a short period of Murfreesboro, one in South Africa, resides in Kimberley during the diamond rush in South Africa, near Cape increasing explosion atmosphere reminiscent the city received in the late 19th century. Finally, in the country, the diamond mining companies to compete full hole, Arkansas and Ozark diamond mining diamond mining company became the property of the company. During this period in 1924, and the biggest discovery of diamonds in the United States, Arkansas diamond mining company, at a later date the name Uncle Sam Diamond », was found by one of its employees. The next four decades, all companies involved in sporadic mining activity is the process of serious economic problems, mismanagement, litigation, compounded by sabotage. In addition to producing Khan was enough to continue my work for the expansion of activity . It was not economic, thus continuing the process, and the campaign from the beginning of the 1950s lived in me.
In 1952 in cooperation with competing companies, mine owners, who knew very well prepared for further discovery was not significant, but the tourist attraction following the development of the site. It says that the novel opened to the public in my area after paying a nominal fee is approved, looking for diamonds and keep what they believe. Name the site "diamonds in the hole." Museum, gift shop, restaurants and promoted as a tourist attraction and place of the attack. The success of the project and a large volume of slightly over this period, found that many of the diamonds. And 15.33-carat "Star of Arkansas Diamond" in 1956 showed that a second diamond fever quickly. Other diamond 6.42 carat diamond was discovered in 1960 and include Gary Moore, and 34.25 carats, "Murfreesboro on" Star Search in 1964.
In 1972, the diamond was purchased by the State of Arkansas hole, and turned it into a crater of diamonds state park. New garden in the State General Administration of diamonds for a fee to allow the continuation of Scouting with the opening of policy and maintain it. Provision of facilities for visitors have improved considerably, and today not only in Garden State, but one of the main tourist attractions of the country. Some of the facilities available for visitors to campsites, picnic areas, a cafe, a model and that the rest of the suite, Laundry, gift shops, and hiking trails for long distances, and a park interpretive programs visitors, water sports and include the names of diamond fields, including springs. This site provides the history of geology and interpretive programs, park and provide some tips on recognizing diamonds explain. Diamond-mining equipment available for rent or purchase. Search for Diamond Discovery Center allows the identification of lines and the certification of diamonds and minerals.
More than 60,000 visitors each year to the park today is vote. They found more than 600 diamonds per year, per day on average, two diamonds are working. Since the discovery of diamonds in 1906 to more than 70,000 diamonds have been identified since the creation of the state park in 1972, over 25,000 diamonds found in the garden. The largest of the 1972 discovery of diamonds in the hole and became the Arkansas State Park, 16,37-carat white diamond "samba Amarillo" Amarillo, Texas fluid found Johnson in 1975. Approximately 15 carats in other size classes 3 to 9 carat diamond was found during this period.
Commercial mining at
In 1990, Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton in the garden and a commercial exploration and mining lease was signed allowed. Consortium of four mining companies to obtain original research to start a full-scale mining on deep analysis of the possibilities. However, it is clear that the campaign of 1994 was not encouraging returns, to permit the full range of mining activities. Consequently, the companies decided to withdraw from the project. Further studies conducted in 1996, the results of previous studies, it appears that the popularity of diamonds crater of diamonds state park, with all the thrill and excitement associated with the fishing ground "in the current host.
August 13 revealed 1938 when Brazil has one of the largest gem weighing 726.6 carats of diamonds, and the San Antonio River Mena Gerard elected commandeer the gravel in the region. Two pretentiousness (drilling and diamond prospectors), Joaquim Venancio Tiago, Miguel Manuel Dominguez, was lucky to find her.
Fate does not extend very far. Not long after was the diamond broker for $ 56,000, was sold to a man who sold for $ 235,000. On the other hand, buyers represented by the World Dutch Dutch central Amsterdam selling of precious stones in the Union. Until then, President Vargas Diamond "Dardanelles Julio Vargas, 1930-45 (1951-54 and President of Brazil was to honor").
Harry Winston security deposits in the basement of the bank, and even a stone in Brazil through its agents, learned of its existence, has advised its size and excellent quality are rare. He visited London, then to Amsterdam, where he recently bought Vargas is the chairman. New York by registered mail to the proper normal diamonds sent the cost of seventy money was only $ 750,000 of the faithful Loyds.
Because of the unusual construction was decided that President Vargas breakage. There are 20 carat gold piece is a publication of this first, pear, and weighs 10.05 carats and fashion. The result was two pieces of diamonds and other structures and one of the 150-carat 550 carat. But in all, nine gems President Vargas was nineteen true ten small and large 411.06 carat total weight. Page cut off the sixth session, a pear-shaped, including a Marques, less jewelry, delicious food and one of the ten triangles.
Is your name, said: "President Vargas," The Jewel of the largest, a page is to keep -48.26 reducing weight.
For many years the diamond Robert Fort Worth, Texas, purchased in 1944 was the wife of George Windfohr.
In 1958, bought by Harry Winston, and again, and then decrease flawless 44.17-carat stone and sold again in 1961.
Other customers found not known, and Baroda in 1948 and is said to be one of the gems bought Vargas.
Page reduce the number of fourth and fifth in the last two years, came up for sale in New York in Sudbi. In April 1989 President Vargas IV, 28,03 carat weight, and the former Lydia Morrison, jewelry and brought $ 781,000, while in October 1992, President Vargas VI, 25,4 carats, sold for $ 396,000 expense.
Diamond Verga expand
Crude oil and precious stones cut diamonds Vargas, 29, of which 19 were the size of the remaining 10 smaller stones. The total weight was 411 carats of diamonds over .06. 29 gems from the 16 - Cut Emerald, a pear-shaped and marquise one piece. Small stones and 10 Brillants triangular one is the baguette. All types of diamonds from the diamond D color quality was excellent.
The largest diamond one - Page cut weighing 48.26 carats and the name of President Hafez Vargas.
Being D, Vargas Diamond color is probably the kind of internal diamond, diamond pure chemical and structural proper. Such as nitrogen, hydrogen and boron, a chemical defect in diamond color. Similarly, there can be no structural distortions of the rare fancy color diamond supply. The absence of both of these factors is the colorless diamond. But all these natural diamond in a jewel case is only 1-2%.
Finders diamond for luck in meeting your valuable time to find a suitable buyer is lost, and broker diamond sold for $ 56,000. The money for the transport of valuable undue haste, the discovery of diamonds Finders experienced a great loss, the broker for a brief period during which the purchase of diamonds sold in the $ 235,000 price increase. Finally, the central bank is represented by Dutch Dutch Amsterdam diamond was bought by the syndicate. Dornelles President Getulio Vargas, and then diamond "President Vargas," the Executive Director of Brazil for the query should be named in honor Lal 15 χρόνια 1930-1945 for 4 years for Brazil to power, and 1951-1954. Social and economic changes must be submitted with President Vargas contributed to the modernization of the country brought. It is also the poor »in« in history as the father of big business and big owners went to war.
Diamond then moved to Amsterdam where the Dutch central bank safety deposit box kept in the cellar. Simultaneously, the famous diamond dealer, New York, and Harry Winston, and representative in Brazil for an excellent and large-scale diamond jeweler to find out. Harry Winston exceptional first stone was reputed buyers, take a trip from London to Amsterdam, at any time. In Amsterdam, and began negotiations with the Association of Dutch Property diamonds, and finally got the stone. Diamonds and secure for $ 750,000 Loyds before, and even normal shipping company by registered letter to New York and agreed to the diamonds. It is normal for the office of New York to send the value of diamonds from Harry Winston was the strategy adopted to reduce attention to the valuable things, which is otherwise a serious security risks.
Harry Winston team cut the rough diamonds Thursday a study of the overall and long-term study, which lasted several months later, and finally decided to break into several pieces, so that the quality of diamonds from uncommon for many small diamonds to, but go for one or two large diamond of lower quality. Diamonds was launched in 1941. There are 20 carats of diamonds in a piece for the first time before the party is that publication. This 10.05 carat piece after another, and excellent quality, pear-shaped diamond turned. The first two unequal large pieces of diamond, weighing over 550 carats, and the other was hoofed up to 150 carats. Cleavings later, and after 29 and finally see the diamond in small pieces, of which 29 have been polished, multifaceted gems, of which 19 were of large size, most with 48.26 carats, and the rest are small . 411.06 total carat weight of diamonds has ended, and the original stone and weight decrease of 43%.
As for size, 16 diamonds - emerald cut stone, a pear-shaped, and was one of the pieces Marques. Ten pieces of baguette diamonds and a small triangular was fantastic. -48,26 Biggest cut page weight, appointed by President Hafez-al Vargas.
History of The Golden Jubilee Diamond
The Golden Jubilee is currently the largest faceted diamond in the world. Since 1908, Cullin an I, also known as the Great Star of Africa, had held the title, which changed following the 1985 discovery of a large brown diamond of 755.5 carats (151 g) in the prolific blue ground of the Premier mine in South Africa; the diamond would later be cut to a weight of 545.67 carats .
The Premier mine was also the origin of the Cullin an diamonds in 1905, as well as other notables such as the Taylor-Burton in 1966 and the Centenary in 1986.
The "Unnamed Brown", as the Golden Jubilee was first known, was considered something of an ugly duckling by most. It was given to Gabriel Tsiolkovsky by De Beers for the purpose of testing special tools and cutting methods which had been developed for intended use on the flawless D-color Centenary. These tools and methods had never been tested before, and the "Unnamed Brown" seemed the perfect guinea pig; it would be of no great loss should something go amiss.
To the surprise of all concerned, what resulted was a yellow-brown diamond in a fire rose cushion cut, outweighing Cullin an I by 15.37 carats. The stone remained largely unknown to the outside world, as the Golden Jubilee's sister, the Centenary, had already been selected and promoted to herald De Beer's centennial celebrations in 1988.
The unnamed diamond had earlier been brought to Thailand by the Thai Diamond Manufacturers Association to be exhibited in the Thai Board of Investment Exhibition in Lame Chabang. There was a mile-long queue to see the diamond, which outshone all other exhibits.
While the current whereabouts of the Centenary are unknown, the Golden Jubilee is known to have been purchased from De Beers by a group led by Henry Ho of Thailand in 1995. The diamond was brought to Pope John Paul II in the Vatican to receive the papal blessing. It was also blessed by the Supreme Buddhist Patriarch and the Supreme Imam in Thailand. The Golden Jubilee Diamond (Thai: เพชรกาญจนาภิเษก) was named by King Humboldt Adulyadej and given to him in honor of his 50th coronation anniversary. It was initially planned to mount the Golden Jubilee in the royal scepter. A subsequent plan was to have it mounted in a royal seal.
The Golden Jubilee Diamond has been exhibited at Henry Ho's 59-story Jewelry Trade Center in Bangkok, the Central Department Store in Lard Prao, Thailand, and internationally in Basel (Switzerland), Bolshevism in Omaha, USA . It is now located in the Royal Thai Palace as part of the crown jewels.
Elizabeth Taylor, and almost synonymous with the magic of Hollywood's women. Relations and luxury, in most cases, the work, but it was a great representative and two Oscars (Butterfield 8 and Who won Virginia Woolf?'s Afraid of) and a number of others have been nominated for. Finals, but Cleopatra, in 1963, reaching the value of $ 1 million, the highest - the film made a star! I find it incredibly beautiful ... I mean how many people have purple eyes! Porcelain skin and black hair! It is magical and delicious final dissolution mature size. Now, but its stock is almost complete, a number of friends and I would like to mention, "" doubtful (, and Mr. Jackson ...). Important
Personal life aside, the Ritz, but Hollywood is almost always shaped neck and decolletage dress offer restrictions apply. More clothes and bare shoulders strong, even if they never happened, or follow the trench coat with gold buttons is over. But certainly we can not forget her favorite dependence are: diamonds. If diamonds are a girl's best friend, and the most popular girl in the world! What girl does not need a collection of jewelry
This stone, after the first coach Harry Winston is not Elizabeth Taylor. Winston, in 1967, Ms. Harriet Ames Ehrenberg, Ehrenberg Walter, and the administration of Richard Nixon when the United States Ambassador in London, the sister of the size of pears for sale. After two years, the Diamond Park - Burnett Gallery in New York with a statement justifying its decision to the auction: "I am in a positive spirit and good for fear of gloves and I have always been the person most nice not to enjoy this feeling and it is a bank for years in the basement If this idiot can not be used to search for him. probably one of the things in New York can not be worn in public places. "One can argue that the stone in the ring, much less the general public should be worn.
Diamond Auction October 23, 1969 to the buyer to understand that it can be attached to his name. The attempt to sell the substance, in the name of the book began with columns like this before. Elizabeth Taylor was one of them, and that even if, in fact, the Swiss diamond, then return to New York and prevention ", as in the frame is not unusual for an overview of vol.
$ 200,000 if the agent, and the crowd broke into the test by saying quote: "Yes." Bidding on the rise, and nine of the bidders and active, and walked to $ 500,000. $ 10,000 $ 500,000 bid, the personal allowance. U.S. $ 650,000 of the only two candidates. The presentation of $ 1,000,000, and a fake Frank marine fish, which Brton Richard was out of reach. Pandemonium in the room when the hammer fell, and the abandonment of all, and the auctioneer that the identity of the inability to break resulting in an interest in the system. Winner Robert Kenmore, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Company Kenmore, by Cartier, the name of the jewel in the place, the record price of $ 1,050,000 to pay for the 'Cartier'. Pearl of the last record in 1957 with the legacy Rovensky diamond gold 305,000 dollars. Rovensky in the form of diamonds (in fact, is probably the diamond Excelsior III) and thought necklace weighs 46.50 carats. National Geographic Magazine in April 1958 an article on the signs of diamond, Niarchos, Tiffany appeared yellow together. Nepal,
Brton as Richard, and Harry Winston - a bidder in the sale. But it's not over, and access to diamond and Brton. This was told to pay - the famous hotel in the south of England, telephone, and spoke with Mr. Kenmore underutilization. Coins in the phone constantly, making the middle of the room and a lounge bar is limited to a dialogue Brton gem. Trustee of the actor is quietly sipping drinks tons of hard, "I am not what might be surprised to hear, and go buy it." At the end Robert Kenmore for sale, provided, however, seem Cartier, now Taylor - Brton, New York and Chicago, has agreed on the name.
More than 6,000 people per day for Carter, New York store to see Taylor - Brton the flow of the crowd, which led to a reduction in mass. But in the New York Times in an article on this subject is clear and acid. "One million dollars of diamonds" The following commentary appeared in the title:
Shortly after November 12, Ms. Taylor for the first time at the Princess Grace of Monaco, at the 40th Taylor attended a birthday party - Brton obsolete. New York, better than that, Italy, Cartier Brton before the conclusion of contracts with two armed guards for a company. In 1978, after a divorce by Richard Brton Miss Taylor and the sale of diamonds to show that in Botswana to build a hospital for a share of income for use of the plan was announced. June 1979, Henry Lambert, and jewelry in New York, said Taylor - Brton buy diamonds for $ 5,000,000.
December of the current owner Robert Muawwad is the cornerstone of the sale. Shortly after, Mr. Moawad was a stone Recut now, and weighs 68.09 carats. Recut of the first, the group gave me a tour of half a stone in question is something more that the end is right. Regardless of how something small Recut Culet.
The Taylor-Burton Diamond
Diamonds have no mercy... "They will show up the wearer if they can," says one character in The Sandcastle, an early novel by the famous British author, Iris Murdoch. Now this may be true of some women - usually wearing an outrageously large item of jewelry which imparts a degree of unwholesome vulgarity to themselves - but is it applicable to Elizabeth Taylor? Those well-publicized gifts which she received from her fifth husband, the late Richard Burton, certainly enhance her appearance and do not look out of place on her. A compatibility is established between the jewel and its wearer.
Richard Burton's first jewelry purchase for Elizabeth Taylor was the 33.19-carat Assayer-cut Krupp Diamond, in 1968. This had formerly been part of the estate of Vera Krupp, second wife of the steel magnate Alfred Krupp. Miss Taylor wears this stone in a ring. She has worn it in a number of her post-1968 films. Next came the La Peregrina Pearl for which Burton paid £15,000. The stone has a long and complex history. For Elizabeth's 40th birthday in 1972 Richard Burton gave her a heart-shaped diamond known as the Taj-Mahal. The stone is fairly large and flat, with an Arabic inscription on either side. It is set with rubies and diamonds in a yellow gold rope-pattern necklace. "I would have liked to buy her the Taj-Mahal," he remarked, "but it would cost too much to transport. This diamond has so many carats, its almost a turnip." Then he added, "Diamonds are an investment. When people no longer want to see Liz and I on the screen, then we can sell off a few baubles."
By the far the best known of Richard Burton's purchases was the 69.42-carat pear-shape, later to be called the Taylor-Burton Diamond. It was cut from a rough stone weighing 240.80 carats found in the Premier Mine in 1966 and subsequently bought by Harry Winston. Here there is a coincidence: Eight years before, another cleavage of almost identical weight 240.74 carats had been found in the Premier. Harry Winston bought this stone too, commenting at the time, "I don't think there have been half a dozen stones in the world of this quality." This wouldn't be the first time the Premier Mine would have the last word because the 69.42-carat gem cut from the later discovery is a D-color Flawless stone.
The Steinmetz Pink diamond 59.60 carats, is the weight value of the jewelry by the American Institute of you want to clear in color. The Steinmetz Pink Diamond is the largest and clearly you have been evaluated. Because this extraordinary rare, a conservative group for Steinmetz 20 months you have been cut. This in Monaco on May 29, 2003, during a public ceremony was opened.
The first time in Monaco in May 2003, Bali, and a short neck to model Helena Christensen, Steinmetz Pink is in South Africa, was discovered and pink diamonds, and is known around the world is the greatest good. Very rare pink diamond, but more typically are smaller in size. The Steinmetz Pink and weighs 59.60 carats.
Internal, and very rare, and the desired degree of clarity innocent evaluated. Importance in view of the Steinmetz Diamond Group has about 20 months.
Detail of South Diamond Star.
West mountains of San Espinoza scale is easy to tell lies. Here is a source of the river, and the new world of diamond is the largest source. This July 1853, the province to work in the mines was in the hands of black miners - Gera, Brazil.
Diamonds, and if present, and submitted to the General Service rhombic dodecahedron angle very lazy, and twenty-four natural elements, and some weaker bands, suggesting the possibility of an eight-division surfaces. In one aspect, the other in the past is a symptom of an octahedral crystal, deep depression, in some ways, it seems clear that the real diamonds. On the surface the imprint of a similar nature, but not so deep as three to four different light effects of the crystal. The space on the same side of the flat alluvial should be formed by the matrix. There are also a few large black spots, a large iron or sand volcano considered a result as has been done. All these conditions and has shown quite clearly that the crystal changes in the work of the original systems of the mountain rocks, Brazil, decided to call a few cracks.
It is the opinion of at least acceptable. This time without hesitation bot, these precious stones of a special study, and rejected the view certainly has the right to compensation. "We", is convinced says: "This is just an extension of the crystalline layer, a large gap in the solution, and for this reason that the simple nature of the valley is another. Some concrete, it really separate the problem of random connectivity with the observation made by Matrix. "Mohammed Dufrenoy end is a jewel of crystal that the group has participated will be diamantiferous. Wrong, diamonds in different parts of different models of fruit, and perhaps implement or block, and one of the other side grafted, pyrite and quartz, such as the mast.
This rock, which, according to the method of valuation, and it will be worth around £ 44,000 and was sold from £ 35,000, and 2.1 of the shortage of 125 units of 254-carat rough, about 500 Expenditure kg. An elegant oval shape of this process, the fact, including a good light. The unusually wide and 35 mm, 29 mm, and 19 fish over time. Fight against lawyers were included in this as it takes shape is the best for the "Regent". However, it is a small 13-carat gem, which is what the ratio of "Regent", which lacks harmony displayed by the best "Southern Star". However, it is pure and stone, and generally a higher level of governance has been treated, despite the good that could be beneficial and should not be considered natural. The orangery is cut, their hands in their offices in Amsterdam, Mr. Curtis, and diamonds, but more than half the weight loss. This fully reflects the light, white, but it is so, then the agreement is possible between the color of the eyes to break strange. This incident, perhaps because to do so, a form of crystal abroad Barraq undoubtedly have perhaps unconsciously, by the cup is unique.
Inherent beauty of the world of revelation, and then this beautiful jewel of chaos purchased, the Republic of Srpska. Halphen, and a number of traders in Paris, the Union for this purpose. "Estrella Black" or not is the name of "Southern Star". Before the raw state and approved by many, and they all more or less as they been informed of the profession. Thus, the Negro, which was founded in 1853 and, according to the practice in Brazil, with wage and freedom, and that a pension for life of blessing, and an estimate of the size and value added "seems to have." With the boss, Tal Casimiro, started a small real value is to know, and a relatively paltry sum of 3000 pounds was in excess. Bank deposits in the Rio de Jenero buyers, safety alone at least £ 30,000.
Stone, who had reached the end of the day, the Paris Exhibition of 1862 in London, DCH section was launched in 1867 in Paris, called for the union. More interest and international reputation of the two events and reach the farthest corners of the earth attracted. India soon, where a £ 110,000 effort on behalf of a king with a large house has been sent. After lengthy negotiations, the parties on the terms of the agreement fell through and the stone, and do not agree with Mr. Halphen, the name of the Union in all parts of the work, and not his, was back to as assumed.
An exhibition of precious stones in India, in terms of size and beauty of Baroda last Gaikwar, Charles, Duke of Braunschweig, the largest diamond in the modern era of the lover was fantastic to come outside the brightness of the accounts. Prince at the end that was referred to the Committee, was the ME Dresden, London and Paris to eight XR or £ 80,000, Mr Dresden and the application of Mr. Halphen south of, and 110,000 books, the Union fell, the purchase of a star of the sale of poultry in the proposal to accept Gaikwar. In this regard, we wade June 14, 1881, Dresden, an addition to the citation, which usually will be interesting to note:
"Fleming-Smith and co-queen, and to send and selling a few years after the death of the Emperor Napoleon), who has been a great few drops), so for the governor, and now he has collected diamonds Baroda Of course, including Southern Star, which had a purchase contract, including the quantity of diamonds, in the same payment Halphen in Paris and two million francs (£ 80,000), vehicles and , which was very expensive. "
I Gaikwar a court, is a particular problem and the culprit is removed from the first application and as a British resident, Colonel Phayre whose presence in Baroda, a non-free blood samples to act as the India tend to be trying to start the great dame of the utmost importance to the mandate of the throne of his ancestors.
128.48 carats, a star in the world, the South is one of the most famous diamonds. Discovered in 1853, the first diamond of Brazil, to continue to receive international recognition. PO 2 stone by the great clarity and light brown in the solution is pink. He also mentioned that the type IIA diamonds.
This Bagagem custom stone the size of the reward is the freedom it has to pay for the chance to work with had with the agent was found in the diamond mines of Brazil. May be granted if, clothing, tools, and in some cases, to attend the ceremony in his honor in March was crowned with flowers. Everything depends on the value of the stone. Staff in the middle of the fair is to promote. There were also a number of restrictions and that the smuggled diamonds have been developed.
A lady working in the mines in 1853 when he earned 261.88 carats. It was not only rewarding, but the freedom of life in more revenue. However, there is no knowledge of the real value, it is 3000 pounds and a small amount to the sale of the primary response, then the buyer $ 30,000 in Rio de Jenero to have done so.
Before many of the stones of the main Amsterdam COSTERS roughness and the 128.48-carat stone for $ 35,000 from a deficit of more than half the original weight is to be sold. Reducing the cost of $ 2500. Stone as a pillow is a light pink to brown was cut.
Halphen and Associates and Paris has been reserved on behalf of the South Star. Stone in London in 1862, in Paris in 1867, it became very popular. £ 110,000 unknown king of the Indian Union had proposed, but this proposal was rejected. A later, the reasons for not disclosing to Mulhar Rao, Baroda Gaekwar to 80,000 pounds, approximately $ 400,000 was sold for.
The Commission said the deal Gaekwar H. Dresden, Dresden famous English original diamond purchase. In 1934, Robert M., son of the king said. Shipley, gemmologist American, South Star and the family jewels in a series of English Dresden support.
The Shah, the diamond is the largest diamond history of the 17th century to a great emperor Akbar the Great and his successors, Jehangir and Shah Jehan Shah. The diamond takes its name from the emperor to the king (1556-1605), and entered his name in diamond in Arabic. English translation of this text reads as follows: - Akbar Shah, Shah of the World, 1028 e
Characteristics of diamond
"Most of the diamonds in the world where diamonds are said which weighed 120 carats in Arabic or English, 116 carats. It is also awarded one of the peacocks in the eyes of famous peacock throne of Shah Jehan. Moreover, there fact is that color, brightness or shape / cut diamond. diamond of Indian origin, and assume that the white color of the stone, or should be colored, and one color background of the Most of the Indian diamond industry, which was developed in the diamond mines in the southern Philippines, including the famous Golconda diamonds.
More information before
In all respects a beautiful stone, "the greatest Shah" completely at the end of the seventeenth century, but recently. Thanks for the information to us courtesy of George G. Blogg & Co. in London, and we been able to trace the great Emperor Akbar Shah, the famous, the first owner. He remained in the treasury during the great Shah Jehan, who was a beautiful engraved in Arabic characters on both sides. After a long time suddenly appeared a few years ago in Turkey, where he was known as "Pastor Stone." However, two of the written leaves no room for doubt about the true source. Mr. George Blogg bought in Constantinople, in February 1866, and was told at that time that, according to tradition, and one eye on the throne, and destroyed the nadir Shah. Arriving in London, where he will be back in the fall the most viable as a form of the late ML. Mr. Tétras. Is then sold by the horrible G. Blogg Gaekwar of Baroda in 1867, for a period of 3 ½ lacs of rupees (35,000 pounds) and now is hidden away from the other treasures of Prince during the strict regime.
The stone weighs 120 in the original Arabic or in English, 116 carats. But in the hands of the parts are down to about 71 or 72 carats, and during this process are the markings are completely destroyed. Copy and fax, but the first time, with translation into English: --
1) Akbar Shah, Shah of the world - one in 1028. E.
2) If the Lord of the world - e 1039 - Shah Jahan
No date. 1, 1028 Ah, corresponding to 1650 AD, but the biggest Humayun, who succeeded in 1556, died in 1605. Therefore, the file can not be larger than itself pre-burned. It is clear that the general history of Shah Jahan, during the term of the title, including the fact that the stone belonged to the maximum. His second entry appears later, in eleven years, and Shah Jehan, then the owner, who ruled 1627-1666, and his government on the same date.
The year 1028 H, corresponding to 1650 AD that is not true. This is a game in 1619. D.
He said that the rule of Shah Jehan in 1627 until 1666, which is not true. Shah Jehan line from 1627 until 1658.
The reign of the great emperor of the British Encyclopedia regarding the following: --
1) Akbar Shah, or emperor, Akbar the Great: - 1556-1605
2) or the Emperor Jahangir Jahangir Shah - 1605 to 1627
3) of the Emperor Shah Jahan - 1627-1658
E during the first post in 1028, equivalent to 1619 AD is the policy of Jahangir Shah, 14 years after the death of Akbar the Great. Thus, it is necessary to record the first attack on the instructions of Shah Jahangir, May, who want to preserve the memory of his grandfather.
E that the year 1039 included in the second which is equivalent to 1630 AD, which corresponds to the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan, and after three years of the throne. Shah Jahan is a tendency to record his name in diamond, the names of two other famous diamonds, the Shah of large diamonds, and the Taj Mahal and diamonds.
The next question is how the diamonds belonging to the emperor of an event, the great West. If, as mentioned in the account of Edwin Streeter Shah and diamonds from the most important to the famous throne of Shah Jahan, which was destroyed by Nadir Shah of Persia, the Shah Jahan, diamonds, and it must come d 'below the line until the great emperor Muhammad Shah in 1719.
1) Emperor Aurangzeb - 1658-1707.
2) Bahadur Shah - 1707-1712.
3) Jahandar Shah - 1712-1713.
4) Faruq al-Siyar - 1713-1719.
5) Muhammad Shah - 1719-1748.
Is the period of Muhammad Shah in February 1739, with Nadir Shah, the governor and the lights of neighboring Iran, which has created a great empire stretching from the river inds in the Caucasus mountains , and the invasion of Northern India, Delhi and Agra held after defeating the forces of Ahmed Shah. Nader Shah fired Agra and Delhi, and abandoned by the army at the end of the day in May 1739, granted the grace of about 70 crores (700 million rupees), the assistance provided by Iran to exempt from all taxes for the next three years. Most of the looting of a grain of a great emperor, including Koh - i-Nur, Nur me daria sacred and light eyes, and the famous throne of Shah Jahan.
After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1749. Most of its treasures have been stolen by the staff and leaders. Some of them have been lost, but some were later found the founder of the Qajar dynasty, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. The dismantling of the throne after the death of Nadir Shah and jewelry stolen from the throne. Akbar Shah, the diamond is mounted on the throne lost in this process.
Diamonds stolen in the 1740s seems to end in Istanbul in Turkey in 1866, and was purchased by Mr. George Blogg London, which was re-cut stone as a diamond drop from 71 to 72 carats, kasamaang generosity that also remove two inscriptions on diamonds. Diamonds on sale later Mulhar Rao, Gaekwar Baroda, is the family of Gaekwar until 1988, when Fatehsinhrao Gaekwad and his wife announced Shantadevi Southern Star with diamonds, diamonds and the Empress Eugenie, in the context major income tax on capital in 1988.
Shah carat diamond is 88.7 cm long and 3 yellow diamond crystal. And found this diamond in the central Philippines, and possibly in 1450.
The court found in Ahmed Shah Najjar. In 1591, and Nizam Shah was carved on one of the realities of the diamond: Burhan - Nizam Shah II. The year 1000.
As in 1591, the governor of northern Philippines, the biggest grand grand, and Ahmed Al-inconvenience and confiscated diamonds. After the grand-son, Shah Jehan up on the throne of the greatest figures in the field, outstanding leadership for the establishment of another title: "The son of Jehangir Shah Shah Jehan. Year 1051." Before the modern calendar is 1641. The son of Shah Jehan - Aureng Zeb is a diamond in his throne and surrounded by rubies and emeralds. Until 1738, and diamonds, and the Shah was unique to Delhi.
In 1738, Nadir Shah, attacked the Philippines, and seized the diamonds, and took to Persia. In 1824, and the third for the registration of names on the third aspect: "The opening of Kadgar Governor Sultan Ali Shah. Year 1242. "
In 1829, writer and diplomat Alexander Griboyedov killed in the capital of Iran, and Tehran. The Russian government demanded severe punishment for those responsible. The fear of the opening of the Court of Shah Ali Shah, son of the Shah - Hosrov Mirza Saint Petersburg, where he was the Czar of Russia in the Shah diamond as a gift. Thus, the Shah diamond Kremlin Diamond Fund, which shows one of seven historic jewels
The Sancy Diamond
The Sancy Diamond has one of the most important, the colors and the confusion between history and the involvement of all famous diamonds in Europe. A 55.23 carat yellow shield in the form of stone, apparently of Indian origin, are said to be one of the first large diamonds cut with symmetrical facets. Stone is also unusual because there is no wing - just a few crowns, one on the other.
In 1570, and the stone was purchased in Constantinople by the French ambassador in Turkey, and Nicolas Harle, Sancy, the Lord, who were avid collectors of gems and jewelry. This sense of personal adornment was more pronounced in 1500 and 1600 in Europe more than any other place, except in the east. He wears it to France, where Henry III, which is very sensitive about bald, borrowed to decorate a small was always wearing a hat to hide his baldness. Sancy was a prominent figure in the French court at the time. Henry was hurt, but to no avail, and the weakness of the son of Catherine de Medici.
During the next period, when the Sancy was Director of Finance, Henry IV Jawharat borrowed as collateral for the loan for the recruitment of senior soldiers. Sent a messenger with the pearl, but not arrive at their destination; thieves followed him. Knowing that the man was loyal, Sancy a paper, and discovered his body buried, and the employee who has been on the diamond!
Sancy sold the diamond to James I, in 1605 the inventory of the jewels in the Tower of London, the jewel in their description in a language other than normal in the period as follows: "... a Fire diamonds, cut Fawcett of Sauncy bought. "
Until 1669 in England. Charles I, son of James I, was beheaded and his widow, Henrietta Maria, a presentation of the jewel of Somerset, Earl of Worcester, including the agreed again to the British Crown. James II held at a later date, but lost in the Battle of the Boyne disaster and fled to France. But Louis XIV, and was nice and generous to host James, Ruth, sad, bored, and the kings of denial. James, and despair, and sold the stone to the greedy king who was known for his love of diamonds. Lewis and gave him $ 25,000, but much to convince James to the value of gems and security in times of distress.
According to the latest dated jewel, Sancy was sold under different circumstances. During the civil war, and Queen Henrietta Maria to the continent, and pledged, with other diamonds, to the Duke of 460,000 Epernon liver. In 1657, and Cardinal MAZARIN paid, and the duke, and with the consent of the Queen, and seized jewels and other inherited a beautiful stone with Louis XIV.
In 1792, at the beginning of the French Revolution, Sancy and other famous gems were stolen from the Gerda Meuble (Royal Treasury) in Paris. Appeared in 1828 and sold to a French merchant prince Anatoly Demitasse of Russia, the prince, in turn, sold, recorded in 1865 at $ 100,000. Two years later, and was introduced by the French jewelry, G. Bapst, in Paris, with the introduction of a price of Fr 1,000,000 (million francs).
In 1906 William Waldorf Astor bought Sancy as a wedding, when his son (later 2nd Viscount Astor) married Nancy centuries from the State of Virginia. Astor woman often wearing a shield in the form of a jewel in the crown of the events. In 1962, was one of the characteristics of some ten centuries of French jewelry exhibit at the Museum of the Louvre. Even after the death of a woman in 1964, celebrates her son inherited stone, 3rd Viscount Astor. It is the jewel in the assembly to be attached to the President of decoration.
The maharaja of Natalie as ownership Sancy Diamond. "Although this stone is similar in shape, weighing 60.40 carats, which is about ten percent more than most of the Sancy Astor family. Sancy is now in residence in the Louvre in Paris.
Michael Hing, a jeweler from whom Great Britain has met several times and treated with the Sancy Diamond, wrote that "for the moment in a sort of range, such as borders and clear around the white gold band. No.. Poles, and the gap is clear that the pine is almost colorless, but there is a faint yellow color is very light green color. color is much less striking than the picture, I think that unless you know what colorless search. In fact I have not been studied under ideal conditions: dark blue light under the basement of a yellow half white worn penlight with around fifteen people, the French museums to try to tell me not to touch the stone, because the only people on the "president of the coordinator or higher and the ability to deal with that. "
The Sancy, pale yellow diamond of 55.23 carats (11.05 g), and the reputation that goes back to ancient times, the majority of the eminent personalities in the field, but probably of Indian origin, in light of the cut, which unusual by Western standards.
Stone shield in the form of two back-to-back crowns (the typical upper half stone) but lacks any semblance of a wing (the lower part of the stone, or under the belt of the middle section).
The Sancy known history began around 1570 in Constantinople when purchased Nicolas Harle, Sancy Lord. It was popular in the French court, the French ambassador at a later date to Turkey. Something of a gem connoisseur, Sancy used to benefit from the knowledge of wealth.
Henry III of France, the former suffered from premature baldness and tried to hide that fact by wearing a hat. The diamond more generally at the time, Henry arrange borrow Sancy diamond to decorate his roof. Henry IV also borrowed the stone, and much more practical to be used as collateral for the financing of the army. The legend goes that the messenger of a jewel is not there, but Sancy (then Director of Finance), and he was convinced that the man was a loyal and has a search on the site of the robbery and even murder, if any. And performing an autopsy on the body to burial, the jewel was found in the man of the stomach and he said.
The Sancy later sold the diamond to James I (successor of Queen Elizabeth (about 1605 when he believed Sancy acquired its name. It was described in the Tower of London in 1605 the inventory of jewelry, "Fire ... and a diamond cutting and Fawcett, from Sauncy bought. "
The Sancy remained until 1669 when he was in England for a short period in the possession of the unfortunate Charles I (king of England, Scotland and Ireland) and the third son of James II. After the devastating defeat of the besieged, took shelter under the James Louis XIV in France, the host volatile exile who are tired of the guest. Face impeachment, and James had no other choice but to sell Sancy MAZARIN the Cardinal on the amount of 25,000 pounds sterling. Cardinal inherited diamond to the king.
Sancy, the date is not known from that time until 1828, when he bought the Prince Demidoff Park of £ 80,000. The family is the collection of demigod until 1865 when sold to Sir Jeejeebhoy Jamsetjee Indian prince of £ 100,000. He sold only one year later, creating a hole in its history. Appeared in 1867, and presented in Paris, with the price of one million francs, gem and then for a period of forty years
Marie-Louise Date of Emerald and Diamond Parure
Josephine, who is currently at an advanced woman, drew the attention of neighbors and ambitious officer, Napoleon Bonaparte, who fell in love with it. Napoleon after the appointment of the Italian speed, Josephine decided to marry and the marriage took place on 9 March 1796. It seems that Napoleon had enthusiastically in love with Josephine, for his part, but it is not indifferent to rotate his love for her. But he went into a joke with the officers of the army, while Napoleon was absent from the campaign in Egypt in 1798-99, Napoleon and the return of the divorce. Saved by the marriage of children, who appealed to the couple. Breaking: Napoleon and forgive their sins. After Napoleon became first consul in 1779, worked closely with her husband in his political career. The couple became very close to each other, and when Napoleon took control of the emperor of France, and was able to convince him to make a new wedding ceremony with religious rites, which took place a day before the coronation of Pope at Notre Dame - that has to Friday, 2 December 1804. In addition, Josephine was able to use his power and find a good husband with her husband, two children from his first marriage. The daughter Hortense to marry his brother Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, and his son Eugene, who was appointed by the commander of Napoleon in Italy, married the daughter of the King of Bavaria.
Josephine is now well established that the empress of France, the Court found all related to the greatness and glory of his office. In particular, it has become known for luxury and a fabulous collection of jewels in flow, especially from her husband, beloved wife of Napoleon. However, the pressure on their relationship with Napoleon Josephine was not the problem, and able to provide his son, who succeeded in the future emperor of Rome. Thus, Napoleon had decided to dispense with Josephine, and take a second wife, had already planned to marry Marie Louise, the daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria, after the separation. Napoleon was able to Josephine separation in January 1810, without recourse to divorce, and that from a previous marriage in 1804 was invalid as a parish priest was not present at the ceremony. After the divorce, Josephine left the presidential palace in a private home outside Paris, and continued to retain the emperor.
The second marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise
Marie Louise, who was behind the "House of Habsburg Austria, is the eldest daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria and Marie-Thérèse, was a niece of Marie Antoinette and the unfortunate Queen of France was guillotined at the time of the French Revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte, married, 1 April 1810, after the annulment of previous marriage of Empress Josephine by her child. a result of this marriage was waiting anxiously for his son and heir, the future king of Rome, was born 20 March 1811. Emperor Napoleon and his father happy and introduced the Queen with a pair of 275 carats which Briolette necklace with diamonds, to celebrate the birth of his son long desired. necklace is known as Marie Louise in a diamond necklace.
Napoleon's France in the absence of military campaigns are ongoing, and Mary Louise governor has acted in Paris. At the end of the day, and after the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, and to relinquish the throne, and she returned to Vienna with her son. They have refused to join Napoleon's exile in Elba, and some account of the severe pain of the former emperor. Treaty, "the source of Napoleon's exile to the island of Elba, and was awarded to Marie-Louise dommen Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, which was ratified by the Congress of Vienna. Marie-Louise, while the rule of the fields, and was in love with Adam Adalbert, Count von Neipperg, and the father of her two children. Finally, after The death of Napoleon Bonaparte on St. Helena in May 5, 1821, and married Adam Albert in September 1821.
Crowning of Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon was not only a brilliant soldier, but also a great patron of the arts. Also expressed for the care and jewelry craftsmen in Paris, showing a piece of fine jewelry and has worked for the use of his trial, where a wide range of jewelry for his coronation, the culmination of Empress Josephine. Martin Napoleon services Biennais, a talented artisan jewelry in Paris, the culmination of the slogans and the crown of the king and the sword. Winners under the guise of slogans, and the Crown, and the sword, staff, and the Orb, and chain, ring and necklace ermine, covered with the most precious of all gems and jewelry. Crown Martin designed Biennais, Charlemagne in the Middle Ages like the Crown, which was destroyed during the French Revolution, and is usually used by the princes of France to the winners. The famous and beautiful "Regent Diamond" in the grip of Napoleon's coronation sword
During the coronation ceremony and Pope Pius VII, the first is the crown and other emblems of the altar and blessed them, and after the return of its President on the altar. Napoleon on his throne, and got up and went to the altar, the altar and the crown of his head, crowning himself. This procedure was agreed earlier, that Napoleon would not accept the Pope great for him. He went to the altar and the removal of Charles the crown of his head, and returns to the altar, and replaced by a laurel wreath in gold, the type worn by Roman emperors. Then the "Karel the Crown" of the altar, and walk from Josephine and kneeling on his head, and crowned as the Empress of France.
Splendor of the court of Napoleon and His Excellency
After ascending to the throne of the Emperor of France, Napoleon held a court in the festivities that took place in an atmosphere of glory and splendor maximum, which was founded by the great presentation of gems and precious stones. The grandeur and splendor of the Court, but more than some of the Bourbon kings who preceded him, and almost as much pomp and circumstance in the Great Hall of the Emperor Shah Jahan (1628-58) of India. The size of the extravagance and reached a peak at the time of the marriage of Napoleon to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, on 1 April 1810.
The Napoleon of the Emerald and Diamond Parure as a wedding gift of Mary Louise
Napoleon extended the royal patronage of the jewelery industry in Paris, to restore the state of Paris, luxury and creative way, a position that was lost after the revolution. To give an impetus to industry and contributed to the revival in 1807 and reported by the Chamber of Commerce, of which 400 Jewelers in Paris, and used 800 of 2000 men and women.
One of the most experienced jewelers in Paris, at a time when children No Marie Etienne, who previously worked with Aubert, Jewelers of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Napoleon appointed jeweler. Marie-Etienne, where he died in 1809 and was succeeded by his son François Renault, the court jewels. Jewelers Court as a father and son, Napoleon helped rebuild Trevor Crown jewels scattered during the French Revolution, and access to diamonds, emeralds and other precious stones to the industry that the mandate given ornaments for women .
At the time of his marriage to Marie-Louise in 1810, François Renaud, who was entrusted with the task of design and manufacture of ornaments of emeralds and diamonds will be presented to Marie-Louise as a wedding gift. Emerald, which is also available in the Treasury of the Crown are not sufficient for the implementation of the dress that the designer François Renault was forced to buy spare parts and bio-letter square cut emeralds of a total weight of 290 carats of the implementation of the monarchy. The study, "Marie Louise necklace of emeralds and diamonds," acquired by the Louvre museum in recent years, the use of the Emerald Necklace to the exceptional quality of the "loupe clean" with the deep green velvet, and believes that the famous emerald mines of Muzo Colombia, where the emerald was won without interruption from 1594 to mid-century, 18th, when production was stopped due to the fire disaster, not to return after independence from Colombia in 1819. François Regnault peace parure of Marie Louise completed in March 1810, before marriage, which took place in early April. Is gift of the empress of the ornament collection and not the property of the State.
Maria Louise Emerald and Diamond Parure to Austria after the fall of the empire
After the fall of the empire of Napoleon and a waiver in 1814, Marie-Louise returned to Austria with her son. Repeat all the Crown Jewels in the Crown in possession of cash, but on the basis of personal jewelry from Austria. These include the Maria Louise Emerald and Diamond Parure is the gift of Napoleon to the wedding. Parure, it stays with them throughout the duration of sound as the Duchess of Pharma, and the time of his death in 1847, he inherited his aunt Archduchess Elise owner. T..
The course of succession to the arch-duchess Elise Alice parure of Archduchess
Archduchess Elise, who was married to the son of Archduke Rainer of Leopold II, the son inherited the adornment of the Archduke Leopold, a godson and nephew of the Empress Marie Louise. Ornament of the Duke Leopold was finally taken over by Duke Karl Albrecht, and them is his wife, Archduchess of Alice and her son, after his death in 1951
Regent diamond gained fame when Napoleon decided to decorate his fight with the sword: amazing is the huge size of 140.64 carats, with very slight blue cast. The diamond was discovered in a mine in India and slave Golonda secret spirit of those who hid in the reduction of production in the leg. In 1792, every grain of France had been stolen, and the Regent diamond is one of the jewels were missing. Napoleon stone to use in search of 1801. Napoleon was married twice, and the other is a woman, archduchess of Austria, but returned home after the death of her husband, and the Governor of Austria issued the document. With the passage of time, and properties in France, as a donation of archduchess father. It is now in the Louvre, and many other amazing treasures.